Gersdorffslund


Laden på Gersdorffslund omkring 1920


Gersdorffslund. Gårdpladsen omkring 1900


Gersdorffslund. Hovedbygningen. 2014


Gersdorffslund. Indkørslen. 2014

Intro

Godset Gersdorffslunds historie går helt tilbage til 1672. Her anlagde Margrethe Gersdorff og Gregorius Rathlou to hovedgårde: Gersdorffslund ved Hov og Rathlousdal ved Odder

Læs mere om Gersdorffslund

Godset Gersdorffslund ligger smukt med udsyn over mark, skov og hav. Godsets historie begyndte i 1672, hvor Margrethe Gersdorff giftede sig med kammerherre Gregorius Rathlou. De anlagde to hovedgårde: Gersdorffslund ved Hou og Rathlousdal ved Odder. Gersdorffslund var i mange år Rathlou-slægtens hovedsæde. Herregården ejede al jord i Hou-området, og landbruget blev drevet ved hjælp af godsets fæstebønder og landarbejdere. Fra slutningen af 1700-tallet var der ansat forskellige forpagtere, der havde ansvaret for driften. En af de første forpagtere, man kender til, var Carl Qvist, der var forpagter under Englandskrigen 1807- 1814. Han var kystbefalingsmand for det frivillige mandskab, der havde til opgave både dag og nat at se efter, at fjenden ikke gjorde landgang på kyststrækningen fra Saksild til Horsens Fjord. Det fortælles, at han byggede et lysthus i lindetræet ved vejen som udkigspost. Det er dog ikke den gamle udkigspost, man kan se i dag. Det er blevet renoveret flere gange, og har været brugt til mere hyggelige formål – bl.a. fortæller digteren Steen Steensen Blicher, at han sad her sammen med forpagter Quist og fik sig en grog efter en lang jagtdag. Det fortælles også, at H.C. Andersen har siddet i lysthuset. Det oprindelige Gersdorffslund var bygget i bindingsværk, men i 1713 brændte gården, og den daværende ejer opførte en ny og større hovedbygning. Den nuværende hovedbygning i klassicistisk stil stammer fra 1854. Godset var et lille samfund i sig selv. Man havde egen smedje, mejeri, og både sadel- og karetmager foruden alle de almindelige håndværksfag. I 1924 blev Gersdorffslund solgt og gik dermed ud af Holstein-Rathlou-slægtens eje. Fra 1985-2004 var gården ejet af planteforædlingsvirksomheden Pajbjergfonden, der lavede en større renovering af hovedbygningen. Gersdorffslund er i dag privat ejet.


Herregårdene omkring Odder

''Herregårdene omkring Odder'''''''' '''Af museumsinspektør Eva Schmidt, Odder Museum '''Læs mere om Gersdorffslund på [http://herregaardskortet.dk/cases/gersdorffslund-2/ herregaardskortet.dk ] ''På Odderegnen ligger herregårdene tæt i landskabet. Det er der både naturmæssige og historiske forklaringer på. Historien går tilbage til 1600-tallet, hvor de herregårde, vi kender i dag, så dagens lys. Den frugtbare jord på Odderegnen, førhen Hads Herred, har haft stor betydning for, at det var muligt at etablere så mange godser på et så lille område. Men også kongens mange krige mod Sverige fik betydning for etableringen af herregårdene på egnen.'' I middelalderen lå i Hads Herred adskillige gårde ejet af adelsslægter. En af disse gårde var Aakær, der var ejet af adelsslægten Truidsen og senere Rostrup. Den blev i 1398 solgt til bispeembedet i Aarhus og blev efterfølgende centrum for kirkens gods i Hads Herred. Aakær blev drevet af biskoppens lensmand, der boede på gården. Kirken søgte i årene efter at samle mere gods i området og blev efterhånden den største jordbe­sidder i Hads Herred. Jorderne fik man samlet ved opkøb, ved pant og som gaver fra jordbesiddere. ''Hads Herred som krongods'' Ved reforma­tionen i 1536 blev kirkens gods overdraget til kronen, der nu blev landets største jord­besid­der. Krongodset blev bestyret af kongelige lens­mænd. På Odderegnen var det administrative centrum og lensmandens bolig på Aakær Slot. Kronen tilstræbte, som kirken tidligere, at forøge sine besiddelser ved byttehandler med adelsgårde og køb af enkeltstående fæstegårde. Udover at øge indtjeningen af den landbrugsmæssige avl, skete det også på grund af kongens jagtinteresser. ''Krigene mod Sverige ''Adskillige gange gennem 15- og 1600-tallet var Danmark i krig med Sverige. Efter krigene 1657-58 og igen 1660 blev der sluttet fred affødt af pres fra flere europæiske lande. Freden fik store konsekvenser for Danmark, der blev formindsket med en tredjedel. Det indebar også, at Øresund nu ikke længere var et indre dansk farvand. Danmark blev tvunget til at afstå sine besiddelser i Sydsverige – Skåne, Halland og Blekin­ge samt Bornholm. Bornholmerne havde dog gjort oprør og befriet sig selv fra svensk overmagt, og ved freden 1660 blev Bornholm derfor igen en del af Danmark. Prisen var afståelse af dansk adelsgodser i Skåne, som den svenske konge skulle have i kompensation. De adelsfamilier, der måtte afstå deres godser i det sydlige Sverige, fik i stedet godser i Danmark som kompensation. Det fik stor betydning for Hads Herred. '' Hads Herred på private hænder ''Blandt de store godsbesiddere i Sverige var den danske adelsmand og rigshofmester [statsminister] Joachim Gersdorff. Joachim Gersdorff var tillige lensmand på Bornholm. Som erstatning for sit tabte gods i Skåne fik han overdraget de kongelige len Aakær og Samsø. Som erstatning for lenet på Bornholm fik han i stedet Kalundborg Len. I forvejen ejede Gersdorff adskillige godser i Jylland og på Sjælland. Aakær Slot og gårdene i Hads Herred var nu ikke længere var ejet af kronen, men af en adelsslægt. Joachim Gersdorff nåede dog aldrig at tage sine besiddelser til sig. Han døde i 1661, og det var derfor hans arvin­ger, der fik den afgørende betydning for Hads Herred. Ni børn skulle dele hans gods mellem sig, og med denne arvedeling skete der derfor en stor opsplitning af Joachim Gersdorffs besiddelser. ''Gersdorffs børn arver gods på Odderegnen'' Joachim Gersdorffs børn fik stor betydning for den fremtidige udvikling af Odderegnens herregårde. Godset, der tidligere havde hørt til Aakær Len, blev nu delt mellem Sophie Amalie Gersdorff, Margrethe Gersdorff, Frederik Gersdorff – og Magdalene Sybille Gersdorff, hvis vi tager Samsø med. I skøderne fik de alle ret til at anlægge hoved­gårde med samme rettigheder og friheder som andre eksisterende herregårde. En hovedgård er betegnelsen for en større gård, der er centrum i et gods, og hvor ejeren selv bor. Fra middelalderen var hovedgårdene altid knyttet til adelen. Kongen ville dog ikke slippe området helt. I skøder til Gersdorff-familien betingede kongen sig til stadig at have ret at drive jagt i begrænset omfang på de tidligere besiddelser. På dette tidspunkt eksisterede der kun meget få selvstændige gårde i Hads Herred, langt størsteparten af jorden var fæstegårde under Aakær Slot. I Hads Herred blev der i de følgende årtier anlagt fem hovedgårde: Aakær, Rodstenseje, Rathlousdal, Gersdorff­slund og Dybvad. ''De nye hovedgårde '' Margrethe Gersdorff var gift med kammerherre Gregorius Rathlou. Hun arvede så meget, at der blev anlagt hele to hovedgårde opkaldt efter hende selv og hendes mand. '''Rathlousdal,''' hvor landsbyen Loverstrup lå og '''Gersdorffslund,''' hvor den store gård Porsborg lå. Sophie Amalie Gersdorff var gift med admiral Jens Rodsteen, og de nedlagde landsbyen Hovedstrup, hvor de anlagde hovedgården '''Rodsteenseje.''' Frederik Gersdorff overtog selve '''Aakær''' samt herregården '''Dybvad''', men ejede dem kun i få år. Aakær blev et par år ejet af hans broder, inden den igen blev solgt til adelsmanden Otto Krabbe, der var gift med en af Joachim Gersdorffs døtre, Dorthea Gersdorff. Magdalene Sybille Gersdorff, gift med Jørgen Bielke, arvede Samsø Len, hvor herregården Brattingsborg blev hovedsædet for familien i en kortere årrække. Godset blev herefter solgt videre. Gersdorff-familien sad altså tungt på området omkring Odder. De solgte og byttede indbyrdes gennem årene, og desuden sørgede man for at samle mere gods til sine besiddelser. Blandt andet købte Jens Rodsteen hovedgården Kanne ved Hvilsted i 1674. Kanne kom senere til at hedde '''Rantzausgave '''og lå tidligere i Hads Herred. I løbet af 1670’erne og 1680’erne blev der bygget nyt og stort på Odderegnen. Nye hovedbygninger så dagens lys flere steder, og der blev opført avlsgårde i tilknytning hertil. Dybvads hovedbygning blev ikke rørt og ligeså Aakærs forfaldne slot stod fortsat, men var ikke beboet af ejeren. Af de nye hovedgårde er Rodsteensejes hovedbygning den eneste oprindelige, som stadig eksisterer. De andre herregårde byggede nye hovedbygninger eller ombyggede eksisterende hovedbygninger i 1700- og 1800-tallet. Det har angiveligt været en omvæltning for fæstebønderne i Hads Herred at få nye ejere. Selv om kronen havde lensmænd på egnen, så var de nye ejere meget tættere på deres bønder. Afgifts- og arbejdspresset kan være blevet noget større end før. ''Herregårdene som vigtige kulturmiljøer i dag'' Op gennem 1700-tallet cementeres den nye herregårdsstruktur, og vi får for alvor det herregårdslandskab, vi kender den dag i dag. Herregårdene lå tæt i Hads Herred og prægede landskabet med hovedbygninger og avlsgårde, haver, parker og alléer og med hovedgårdsjorden, hvis marker lå udenfor landsbyernes dyrkningsfællesskab. Dette landskab blev skabt i løbet af ganske få årtier i anden halvdel af 1600-tallet, hvor Hads Herred gik fra at have haft én stor hovedgård, Aakær Slot, til at have fem herregårde, hvor de fleste blev beboet af adelsslægten Gersdorff, eller hvor ejerne blev gift ind i andre adelsslægter. At der overhovedet var basis for så mange herregårde på et så forholdsvis lille område, hænger også sammen med den gode og frugtbare jord på Odderegnen. Andre steder i landet lå herregårdene meget mere spredt. I Hads Herred var det muligt at få et stort gods på et relativt mindre område end f.eks. i Vestjylland. Landsbyerne lå også tæt på Odderegnen, og med enkelte undtagelser var bønderne alle fæstere under én af de nye herregårde. Herregårdene eksisterer stadig som store gårde, og bygningerne er synlige, dog forskelligt fra gods til gods. Nogle steder findes den gamle hovedbygning og dele af avlsbygningerne stadig, andre steder er det en nyere hovedbygning, der kan ses. På Rathlousdal findes kun begrænsede rester af herregården. Herregårdene er i dag nogle af de væsentlige kulturmiljøer på Odderegnen. De ligger som synlige beviser på en vigtig del af vores historie, og de bidrager med deres eksistens til fortællingen om en egn, der gik fra kirkegods til krongods til adelsgods.

English

''Five manors around Odder'''''''' '''By Eva Schmidt, Curator, Odder Museum ''' ''Around the small town of Odder, the manors are located very closely together in the landscape. There are both natural and historical explanations for this. The story dates back to the 17th century, when the five manors we know today were built. The fertile land of the Odder region, which formed a so-called hundred [Da: herred] by the name of Hads, was very important in terms of being able to establish so many estates in such a small area. But the many wars fought against Sweden were also a factor in the establishment of the manors in the region. '' In the Middle Ages, there were several manors in Hads Herred owned by noble families. One of these manors was Åkjær, which was owned first by the noble Truidsen family and then by the Rostrups. In 1398, it was sold to the episcopate in Aarhus. Åkjær was run by the Bishop’s bailiff, who lived on the manor, and the manor became the centre of the Church’s property in Hads Hundred. A Danish hundred or ‘herred’ was an administrative division between parish and county, which was in use from the Middle Ages until 1919. In the years that followed, the Church sought to consolidate more property in the area and gradually became the largest landowner in Hads Hundred. The Church amassed the land through acquisition, mortgage and gifts from landowners. ­ ''Hads Hundred as crown land'' With the Reformation in 1536, the Church’s property was transferred to the Crown, which now became the country’s largest landowner. The Crown property was administered as a small fief by royal bailiffs. In the region of Odder, the administrative centre and the bailiff’s residence were at Åkjær Castle. As the Church had previously done, the Crown strove to augment its possessions by bartering with the manor-owning nobility and by purchasing single copyhold farms. It was not only increased revenue from agriculture that mattered; the king’s hunting interests also played a role. ''The wars with Sweden'' On several occasions during the 16th and 17th centuries, Denmark was at war with Sweden. After the wars of 1657-1660, thanks to pressure from several European countries, peace was declared. The peace had major consequences for Denmark, which was reduced by a third. It also meant that the Oresund was no longer a Danish domestic fairway. Denmark was forced to cede all of its possessions in the south of Sweden – Scania, Halland, Blekinge and Bornholm. ­ But the people of Bornholm had rebelled and liberated themselves from Swedish supremacy. So, when peace was declared in 1660, Bornholm once again became part of Denmark. The price was the handover of eight estates owned by Danish noblemen, which the King of Sweden wanted by way of compensation. The noble families, who had to surrender their estates in the south of Sweden, were instead given royal estates in Denmark as compensation. This was of great importance for Hads Hundred and the area around Odder. ''Hads Hundred in nobleownership'' The major estate-owners in Sweden included the Danish nobleman and Prime Minister [Da: Rigshofmester], Joachim Gersdorff. Joachim Gersdorff was also the royal bailiff on the fiefdom of Bornholm. By way of compensation for the estate he had lost in Scania, he was given the Åkjær Castle with all the Crown lands and the island of Samsø. By way of compensation for the fiefdom on Bornholm, he was given the fiefdom of Kalundborg. Gersdorff already owned several estates in Jutland and on Zealand. Åkjær Castle and Hads Hundred were now no longer owned by the Crown, but by a noble family. However, Joachim Gersdorff never managed to take possession of his properties. He died in 1661, so it was his heirs who were of crucial importance to Hads Hundred. ­ Nine children had to share the property between them. This hereditary sharing resulted in a major fragmentation of Joachim Gersdorff’s possessions. ''Gersdorff’s children inherit property in the area around Odder'' Joachim Gersdorff’s children played a major role in terms of the future development of manors around Odder. The estate, which had previously been administered as the fiefdom of Åkjær, was now divided between Sophie Amalie Gersdorff, Margrethe Gersdorff, Frederik Gersdorff – and Magdalene Sybille Gersdorff, if we include the island of Samsø. In the deeds, they all had the right to establish manor with the same rights and liberties as other existing manors. A manor is a large farm and the centre of an estate on which the owner usually lives. From the Middle Ages, these manors were always the preserve of the nobility. ­ But the king would not let go of the area completely. The title deeds for the Gersdorff family stipulated that the king still had the right to hunt, to a limited extent, on his previous possessions. At the time, there were only very few independent farms in Hads Hundred: the vast majority of the land was laid out as copyhold farms under the aegis of Åkjær Castle. The following decades saw the establishment of five manors around the town of Odder: Åkjær, Rodstenseje, Rathlousdal, Gersdorffslund and Dybvad.­ ''The new manors'' Margrethe Gersdorff was married to Gregorius Rathlou, who held the title of chamberlain [Da: kammerherre]. She inherited so much land, that she and her husband could establish an impressive two estates, named after themselves: Rathlousdal, where the village of Loverstrup was located; and Gersdorffslund, the location of Porsborg, one of the larger farms in the area. Sophie Amalie Gersdorff was married to Admiral Jens Rodsteen. They scrapped the village of Hovedstrup and established the manor of Rodsteenseje. Frederik Gersdorff took over Åkjær itself and the larger farm of Dybvad, but only owned them for a few years. For a couple of years, his brother owned Åkjær, until it was again sold: this time to the nobleman, Otto Krabbe who was married to another of Joachim Gersdorff’s daughters, Dorthea Gersdorff. Magdalene Sybille Gersdorff, who was married to Jørgen Bielke, inherited the former fiefdom of Samsø, where Brattingsborg Manor was the family seat for a limited number of years. The estate was then sold off. The Gersdorff family was a major fixture in the area around Odder. They traded and bartered with each other over the years. They also made sure to add more property to their possessions. For example, in 1674 Jens Rodsteen bought the small manor of Kanne at Hvilsted. Kanne was later renamed Rantzausgave and was located within the Hads Hundred. The 1670s and 1680s witnessed major building projects in the area around Odder. New main buildings were constructed all over the place, and impressive home farms were built next to them. Dybvad’s main building was not changed, and Åkjær’s run-down castle continued to stand, though it was not occupied by the owner. Of the new estates, the main building of Rodsteenseje is the only original one still in existence today. The other manors built new main buildings in the 18th and 19th centuries. The advent of new owners was allegedly an upheaval for the tenants in Hads Hundred. Even though the Crown had had bailiffs in the region, the new owners were much closer to their peasants. The pressure of levies and work may have been substantially greater than before. ''The manors as important cultural environments today'' ''The 18th century saw the consolidation of the new estates around Odder and the distinctive manorial landscape we know today. The manors were located very closely to each other in Hads Hundred and were a dominant feature of the landscape with their main buildings and home farms, gardens, parks and avenues, and with the estate grounds, whose fields were located outside the village communities. This landscape was created in the course of just a few decades in the latter half of the 17th century. Hads Hundred progressed from having a single large estate, Åkjær Castle, to having five estates, the majority of which were inhabited by the noble family of Gersdorff, or where the owners had married into other noble families. The fact that there was a basis for so many estates in such a relatively small area also relates to the excellent, fertile soil in the area around Odder. In other parts of Denmark, the manors could be much more scattered. In Hads Hundred it was possible to establish a large estate on a relatively smaller area than, say, in west Jutland. The villages were also located closely together around Odder and, with a few exceptions, the peasants were all tenants on one of the new estates. The manors still exist as large farms, and the historic buildings are visible, though different from one estate to another. In some places the old main building and parts of the home farm still exist. In other places, a newer main building can be seen. At Rathlousdal there are only limited relics of the main building. Today, the manors are among the most important cultural heritage in the area around Odder. They represent visible evidence of an important chapter in our history, and their existence contributes to the story of a particular area, in which possession of land progressed from church land to Crown land to noblemen’s land.

Fakta

''Fakta'' Adresse: Gersdorffslundvej 1, 8300 Odder Kommune: Odder Kommune Tidligere: Aarhus amt, Hads herred, Gosmer sogn Ejer: Jens Gammelgaard (2017) Funktion: Landbrug, skovdrift, jagtudlejning, boligudlejning (2017) Størrelse: Ager 143ha, skov 30ha, park/have 1ha (2017) Offentlig adgang: Ingen oplysninger Fredning: Ikke fredet (2017)