4: The Windmill
vindmøllen fra maderup i Den Fynske Landsby.
Vindmøllen fra Maderup i Den Fynske Landsby, vinter.
Sternhjul i Maderup Vindmølle (Den Fynske Landsby).
Maderup Vindmølle før den flyttedes til Den Fynske Landsby.
The Funen Village's windmill originates from Maderup on northern Funen. The windmill is a symbol of advances in both technology and agricultural production in 19th century. More grain lead to a need for more mills, and many smock mills like this emerged.
The windmill was built in 1832 and is one of the oldest surviving windmills in Denmark.
It is octagonal, constructed primarily of pine and is thatched. The cap is turned into the wind by way of capstans and cross bars (a so-called krøjeværk), after which the canvas sails of the wings are unfurled so they can catch the wind.
Internally, the mill is divided up into four mill lofts, where the millstones and the entire millwork are located. The milling today comprises a rye mill, a bolter, a huller, and a groat mill as well as diverse processing and sieving machines.
The many different mills are later additions (from 1872).
In 1356, King Valdemar Atterdag pronounced that “He did not wish the rivers to reach the shore before first having been of benefit to the country”. By this he meant that no water should leave the land without first having been through a watermill. Water- and windmills were important! One of society's great challenges prior to 1900 was that there was very little energy that could be exploited for work. Mills were of great importance as they relieved people and animals of hard drudgery. Watermills stood where there were rivers and streams, windmills – until about 1800 post mills – stood where there were no watercourses, including some on smaller islands.
Agricultural production increased during the 19th century and the need for mills rose correspondingly. As the watercourses were already in use, people resorted to less reliable and less efficient windmills. A new model – the smock mill – was introduced. Now only the cap needed to be turned when catching the wind. With post mills, the whole mill had to be turned.
The milling trade was privileged (see the watermill), so it was millers who were the first to be allowed to expand using windmills. However, these could not meet the demand and with time, farmers and others were also allowed to build windmills. After 1862, anyone was free to establish a mill. In the 19th century there were about 200 windmills on Funen and the islands.
Maderup Windmill is a symbol of advances in both technology and production in 19th century agriculture. The synergy between windmill and watermill was, as mentioned, common in the past, and there was also a windmill at Davinde Watermill. Finally, mention should be made of the fact that smock mills also played a significant role in pumping away of water in connections with the 19th century's great reclamation projects. These were particularly numerous in Northern Funen and on Langeland.
The mill belonged to a small farm of a little more than one tønde hartkorn [Danish unit of land valuation based on estimated productivity] in 1839 and contributed to the household income. Between 1839 and 1943, when The Funen Village took over the windmill, it was owned by the same family of millers. Christian Duus obtained it in 1839 and on his death his widow, Kirstine Marie, continued to work the mill.